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Unit 7: Lesson 4 - The New Deal
United States History: Eyes on the Economy - Through the 20th Century
Using a "bathtub" model, the teacher that government spending raises aggregate demand and that taxes lower aggregate demand. Working in groups, students complete on worksheet about New Deal policies and another about other forces affecting aggregate demand during the Great Depression. Students write brief answers to three essay questions.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Aggregate demand, Depression, Government spending, Taxation, Inflation,

Unit 2: Lesson 4 - What are the Economic Functions of Government?
Civics and Government: Focus on Economics
The six economic functions of government are presented to students. Students categorize a series of newspaper headlines as examples of each of the six functions and locate additional examples in current newspapers and newsmagazines. The lesson concludes with a discussion of how limited the economic functions of government should be.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Role of government,

Lesson 13: Tax Math
Mathematics & Economics: Connections for Life - 9-12
People pay a variety of taxes. Among the different types of taxes that we pay are the federal income tax and the payroll tax. How these taxes are applied has interesting economic implications. The income tax is a progressive tax. When a tax is progressive, the average rate of taxation is higher for higher-income earners than it is for lower-income earners. The payroll tax has two parts (Social Sec...
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Taxes,

Unit 2: Lesson 5 - How Has Federal Government Spending Changed?
Civics and Government: Focus on Economics
They review the definitions of government purchases and transfer payments and categorize the listed expenditures. Finally, given Federal government budget data, they draw graphs of the relative importance of different types of spending in the budget to discern the pattern of change and its significance.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Role of government, Government purchases, Government transfer payments, Government interest payments,

Lesson 4 - Who Should Make the Food Safe?
United States History: Focus on Economics
Students role-play, participate in a class discussion, and analyze a graph depicting changes in a market to gain insight into ways in which government regulations affect the behavior of producers.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Cost, Competition, Incentives, Government regulation

Unit 3: Lesson 9 - How Are Economic Solutions to Pollution Different from Political Solutions?
Civics and Government: Focus on Economics
After students have developed an understanding of externalities, they examine a case study of pollution in Los Angeles and determine a variety of solutions for this problem. The costs and benefits of these solutions are explored.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Externalities, role of government, Incentives,

Unit 3: Lesson 10 - Why Does the Federal Government Give Money to State and Local Governments?
Civics and Government: Focus on Economics
The class discusses the meaning of spillover benefits (positive externalities) and develops a list of goods and services provided by state or local governments that could result in positive externalities. The concept of fiscal federalism is discussed by examining why and how the Federal government would encourage state and local governments to increase their production of the items on the list. ...
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Positive externalities, Spillover benefits, Incentives, Intergovernmental grants, Fiscal federalism,

Lesson 9 - Prohibition Then; MADD Today
United States History: Focus on Economics
Students read short histories of Prohibition and MADD and work in small groups to evaluate the consequences of these policies on consumers' behavior.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Choice, Costs/benefits, Incentives, Externalities (social consequences)

Lesson 10: Rich Man, Poor Man...
Focus: High School Economics
The issue of income distribution has been controversial throughout history. Decisions about the distribution of income are made by individuals and firms making exchanges in the markets for productive resources (inputs), and also through the political process. Public policies, such as taxation and transfer payments, are often targeted at particular income groups to redistribute income. Some of t...
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Income, Transfer payments, Personal distribution of income, Functional distribution of income, Proprietors' income, Corporate profits,

Lesson 11: Public Goods and Services
Focus: High School Economics
Most goods and services produced in the marketplace are private goods and services. This kind of good or service is purchased by a consumer who desires it and can afford it, and then consumed only by that individual or anyone he or she gives it to. But some goods and services must be produced or provided by the public sector or government. Public goods and services are paid for through tax doll...
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Public goods and services, Taxes, Nonexclusion principle, Shared consumption, 'Free riding' problems,

Unit 5: Lesson 26 - Public versus Private Goods
Capstone: Exemplary Lessons for High School Economics - Teacher's Guide
Students discuss the role of government in the economy. They complete an activity in which they classify goods and services as public or private.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Free rider, Non-exclusion, Public good, Private good, Shared consumption

Unit 5: Lesson 29 - Can Taxes Be Incentives?
Capstone: Exemplary Lessons for High School Economics - Teacher's Guide
Students examine different types of taxes and criteria for determining a fair tax. Students work in pairs to predict how changes in taxes will change people's behavior.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Incentives, Substitutes, Taxes

Unit 3: Lesson 12 - Why Isn't Income Distributed More Equally?
Civics and Government: Focus on Economics
On day one, students review a list of selected occupations and categorize them according to median income. They brainstorm a list of reasons for income differentials and then review a list of conventional economic explanations. They review data on the personal distribution of income in the U.S. since 1950 to see how this distribution has changed over time. On the second day, students discuss va...
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Income distribution, Economic incentives, Role of government,

Unit 3: Lesson 8 - Don't Rain On My Parade!
Economics and the Environment
Students play a trading game to learn the economic consequences of trades on the traders and on others who may be affected by the trades.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Externality, Negative externality, Positive externality, Allocative Efficiency,

Lesson 4 - Uncle Sam's Checkbook
Old MacDonald to Uncle Sam: Lesson Plans from Writers around the World
Students learn about the components of federal income taxes and expenditures. They also create and analyze political cartoons relevant to federal taxes and expenditures.
Grade(s): 6-8, 9-12
Concepts: Income, Tax, Federal tax revenue, Payroll tax, Federal expenditures, Personal income tax,

Lesson 6 - Public Goods and Services
Old MacDonald to Uncle Sam: Lesson Plans from Writers around the World
Students compare and define private and public goods. They receive money and must make a decision about paying for the heating in the classroom. This activity reinforces the concept of public goods and helps students identify and explain the free-rider problem. This lesson should be taught when the weather is cooler or cold.
Grade(s): 6-8, 9-12
Concepts: Private goods, Private services, Public goods, Public services, Non-exclusion, Shared consumption, Free-rider, Taxes,

Unit 4: Lesson 3 - Regulations of Business
United States History: Eyes on the Economy - Through the 20th Century
Students are presented with an economic mystery. They read and discuss handouts concerning farmers' demands for government regulation of railroads and how the ensuing regulation created incentives which caused the Interstate Commerce Commission to become a "captured" agency. They apply their analysis to the deregulation of airlines and trucking in the late 1970s.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Regulation, Price, Incentive, Natural monopoly, Captured agency,

Unit 5: Lesson 2 - The Constitution: Ground Rules for the Economy
United States History: Eyes on the Economy - Through the Civil War
Students in small groups examine key economic clauses in the U.S. Constitution and discuss contemporary examples.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Incentives, Private property, Trade, Money, Taxation, Innovation,

Lesson 11: The Lancaster Landfill
Geography: Focus on Economics
Students participate in a simulated town meeting called to consider proposed solutions to the problem of groundwater contamination. Hazardous waste accumulated in a landfill over many years is creating the problem. The landfill is no longer in use, but it poses a risk to fish, wildlife, and people living nearby. Each student is provided with a specific role and a point of view.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Environment, Government Regulation, Hazardous Waste, Third Party Costs, Property Rights, Market Mechanism, Technology,

Lesson 11: "Hey, Hey! Ho, Ho! Why Do We Need the WTO?"
Focus: Institutions and Markets
Several activities are used to introduce students to six international institutions that play important economic roles, especially in the areas of international trade, finance, and development: the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN...
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: International economic institutions, Gains from trade, Tariffs, Public goods, Market failures, Monetary policy, Property rights, Competition,

ONLINE LESSONS:

online National Budget Simulation
Students serve as an Economic Advisor to the President, who must increase military spending out of political necessity, but needs to reduce spending in other programs to limit the deficit. Conflicting goals create a need for compromise and tradeoffs to create a national budget, while trying to remain under deficit limits.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Budget,Government Expenditures,Trade-off

online Constitution Costs
This lesson helps students understand the basic services provided for Americans in the United States Constitution and the necessity of a system of taxation to fund those services. Students will debate the pros and cons of having governments fund and provide particular services.
Grade(s): 6-8, 9-12
Concepts: Aggregate Demand (AD),Budget,Role of Government,Taxation

online Party Platforms and Economic Issues
According to Gallup, Americans have considered the state of the economy "among the most important U.S. problems" since 2008. The issues frequently debated leading up to any presidential campaign include many economic issues such as improving the economy, how to reduce unemployment, the federal deficit, and taxes. Similar topics have highlighted many of the debates leading up to the 2016 election. ...
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: National Debt,Taxes,Trade,Employment

online Worker Safety - The Triangle Fire Legacy
The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire of 1911 was a turning point for employee health and safety protections in the U.S. Students investigate the Triangle tragedy and how its impact is still felt today. Students identify eerie parallels between the Triangle Fire and more recent workplace events with safety implications – recent complaints of Wal-Mart employee lock-ins, a deadly fire in a No...
Grade(s): 6-8, 9-12
Concepts: Cost/Benefit Analysis,Role of Government,Benefit,Costs,Labor,Labor Union,Special Interest Group

online What Happened to Railroads?
Between the Civil War and World War II, railroads were one of the nation's most important businesses and an integral part of people’s lives. In this lesson, students assume the role of detectives investigating why the rail companies experienced a crisis in the 1960s and what helped the freight transport portion of the business return to profitability later in the same century. Students analy...
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Competition,Cost/Benefit Analysis,Demand,Incentive,Maintaining Competition,Natural Monopoly,Non-price Determinants,Role of Government,Supply,Benefit,Costs,Determinants of Demand,Determinants of Supply,Profit,Regulation,Monopolies

online Understanding the Debt Ceiling Debate and the Budget Control Act of 2011
This lesson provides an introduction and an overview of the Budget Control Act of 2011. Students will be given information about the legislation and presented with different proposals for dealing with the long-term deficit problem of the United States.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Budget Deficit,Government Expenditures,Federal Budget,Government Spending,Public-Choice Analysis

online Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
This lesson introduces regulation and information as two tools used by government to promote fair competition and complete information in a market economy. Using the 1906 Pure Food and Drugs Act as a case study, students explore the reasons buyers and sellers asked the federal government to intervene with respect to food safety and quality. In a second activity, students examine how govern...
Grade(s): 6-8, 9-12
Concepts: Cost/Benefit Analysis,Decision Making,Maintaining Competition,Role of Government,Regulation

online Transportation: They Say We Had a Revolution (Part 3)
Advancements in transportation have played a key role in the growth of our nation. U.S. government policies have also had a considerable impact on the development of transport as we know it today. In this series of three lessons, the students examine transportation and its impact on our nation (and vice versa) since the United States declared its independence in 1776. Lesson 1 focuses on improvem...
Grade(s): 6-8, 9-12
Concepts: Competition,Incentive,Inventors,Profit Motive,Role of Government,Technological Changes,Investment,Profit,Property Rights,Innovation

online U.S. farmers and the Cuban embargo
This lesson explores trade barriers in general and why some U.S. farmers want one specific trade barrier, the Cuban embargo, completely eliminated.
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Barriers to Trade,Markets,Role of Government

online Deceptive Advertising: Crossing the Line
Businesses use advertising to tell consumers about the goods and services they are selling. Businesses hope that their advertisements will convince people to buy their products. In this lesson, students examine the ground rules for advertisements of goods and services, why we need rules, who sets them, and who enforces them. They research cases in which, deceptive advertising has been charged and ...
Grade(s): 9-12
Concepts: Competition,Incentive,Legal and Social Framework,Role of Government,Regulation

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